Russian Navy

Chronology of the three centuries of the Russian Fleet: Introduction


Boyar Duma approved Peter the Great’ Decree on building a regular fleet on the Azov Sea. At the Voronezh Shipyard the first galley “Principium” (penal servitude) was constructed. Glorious victory in the city of Azov (Azak) was won with the help of galleys which were the first military units of the Russian Fleet.


A Naval Department was officially established. The first Naval Academy was solemnly opened in Moscow and later it was moved to Azov.


Sailing fleet was separated from rowing one. The beginning of war with Sweden (Northern War). An attempt of the Swedish squadron to seize the city of Arkhangelsk was successfully repulsed. Sergey Ivanovich Chelyuskin, an outstanding polar explorer, was born.


Navigation School was opened in Moscow.


The foundations of the first ships and vessels for the Baltic Sea Fleet were laid (a shipyard on the river Siyas’). Noteburg (Fortress Oreshek) was won back and renamed in Schlisselburg (Petrokrepost’).


The first epoch-making victory in the Northern War. The first sea-going ship “Standard” for the Baltic Sea Fleet was launched. Fortress Kronshlot, at the sandbank of the Kotlin Island, was erected. Admiralty School was opened in Voronezh. The first medal for the Marine Victory “In the memory of the seizure of the two Swedish ships in the mouth of the Neva river” was introduced. Navigation School was moved to Saint-Petersburg.


Foundation of Kronshtadt. The beginning of the Saint-Petersburg Shipyard construction works. Aleksey Ivanovich Nagaev, the author of hydrographs, first atlases and sailing directions of the Baltic Sea, cartographer, admiral, was born.


Tsar Peter the Great’ Decree on Naval regiment establishment (initial step in the Marines organization). Defense of Saint-Petersburg during the Northern war.


The rank of Admiral was introduced.


Transfer of full naval authority to the Admiralty President admiral Fedor Matveevich Apraksin and his deputy Vice-Admiral Kornely Ivanovich Kruice.


The foundation of the first battleship “Poltava” was laid at the Shipyard (in accordance with Peter I and Feodosiy Sklyaev project). On the Shipyard premises a model – chamber, the first Naval Museum in Russia, was built (Central Naval Museum).


Vyborg was won back.


Cannon casting yard was founded in Saint-Petersburg. Admiralty School was opened in Arkhangelsk.


Galley Yard was established in Saint-Petersburg. Naval and Admiralty decrees were abolished following the establishment of the Naval Chancellery. The first Baltic Sea Fleet battleship “Poltava” was successfully launched.


Admiral Grigoriy Andreevich Spiridonov, who laid the foundations of naval maneuver strategy, was born. A draft of paddle boats construction was proposed by Aleksey Burtsev, master of a Saint-Petersburg Partikulyarnaya Shipyard.


The first triumphant victory in the history of the Russian Fleet over the Swedish squadron near Gangut Peninsula (Hanko). Gold medal for Officers and Silver medal for Sailors “In memory of the Gangut Battle” were introduced.


Saint-Petersburg Admiralty Hospital was founded (the first naval hospital).


Naval Academy (Academy of Naval Guards) was established in Saint-Petersburg. Naval Statute and regulations were put in force; military ranks system was brought in due order.


Admiralty Board, superior navy management body, was established


Cruel battle with a Swedish group of ships near Ezel Island.


Victory, won by the Galley Fleet under the command of General M.M. Golitsyn, over a Swedish squadron near Grengam Island (Aland Islands). The first Naval statute, worked out by Peter the Great, was published; it was called “Naval Statute on Everything that has a Relation to a Proper Fleet Management at Sea”.


The Northern war was finished. Nishtadt Treaty was made in accordance with which Russia gained predominance in the Baltic Sea. Rowing port was founded in Saint-Petersburg.


”Table of Ranks” was introduced: General-Admiral (1708-1908), Admiral (1699-1917), Vice-Admiral (1699-1917), Rear-Admiral (1699-1917), Captain-Commander (1707-1827), Captain I rank (1713-1917), Captain II rank (1713-1927), Captain III rank (VIII Century), Lieutenant-Commander (1706-1911), Senior Lieutenant (1907-1917), Lieutenant (1701-1917), Midshipman/Warrant Officer (1713-1917). Formation of the Caspian Navy Flotilla.


The construction of the Sestroretsk Plant for Fire-arms and Cold Steel arms production for the needs of the Army and Navy was finished.


Navy Archival Depository in the building of the Admiralty Board was established. “Undercover ship”, built by E.P. Nikonov, was tested. The city of Okhotsk was declared a military port.


Reefers School was opened in Kronshtadt.


Vasiliy Yakovlevich Chichagov, polar explorer and admiral, was born.


Reefer company was formed with the Naval Academy in Saint-Petersburg.


Arkhangelsk Admiralty School was opened.


Okhtinsk Navigation School was opened.


Naval Commission was established for the purpose of Fleet management improvement.


Don (Azov) Naval Flotilla was formed.


Samuel Karlovich Greig, the Baltic Fleet Admiral, was born.


Azov was won back with the help of Don flotilla.


Dnestr Naval Flotilla was formed.


Yakutsk Navigation School was opened.


Fedor Fedorovich Ushakov, an outstanding naval commander and admiral, was born.


(Polish) Gentry School with the Saint-Petersburg Naval Academy was opened.


Irkutsk Navigation School was opened.


Narchinsk Navigation School was opened.


Dmitriy Nikolaevich Senyavin, a naval commander and admiral, was born.


Naval Assembly for naval officers training was established in Revel. Platon Yakovlevich Gamaleya, captain-commander, author of numerous scientific works on meteorology, astronomy, navigation and naval practice, hydrology and navy history, was born.


Admiral Pavel Vasilievich Chichagov was born.


The beginning of the Russian-Turkish war (1767-1774).


“St. George” Order of 4 Classes was instituted.


Victory at Chesma. “Medal for the Participation in the Chesma Battle” was instituted. Ivan Fedorovich Kruzenshtern, a seafarer and admiral, was born.


Danube Rowing Flotilla was formed.


Professional shipbuilder Ivan Petrovich Amosov was born.


Seafarer Jury Fedorovich Lisyanskiy was born.


The end of the Russian-Turkish war. Kuchuk – Kainardzhiyskiy Treaty was signed.


Seafarer and admiral Vasiliy Mikhailovich Golovnin was born.


Faddey Faddeevich Bellinshausen, an admiral and seafarer who discovered Antarctica in 1820, was born.


Vasiliy Artemievich Ershov, a shipbuilder and lieutenant-general, was born. The first Russian Nautical School was opened in Holmogory.


Kherson Naval College was established. “St. Vladimir Order” of 4 Classes was instituted.

1783. Naval forces at the south of Russia were named the Black Sea Fleet. Foundation of the city of Sebastopol.


Naval specialized college was opened in Saint-Petersburg. 1786.

Karl Andreevich Schilder, marine engineer and author of the submarines construction project, was born.


The beginning of the Russian-Turkish war over Crimea.


Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev, an admiral, seafarer, naval commander and discoverer of Antarctica, was born. “Medal for Valour and Courage in the waters of Ochakov” was instituted in honour of the Russian rowing flotilla victory in the battle of Ochakov.


Medal on the ribbon of Order of St. George “For the Victory over Sweden in the waters of Finland” was instituted.


Medal on the ribbon of Order of St. Vladimir “For the Signing of the Peace Treaty with Sweden” was instituted.


The Russian-Turkish war was finished.


The Black Sea Artillery College was opened in Kherson.


Fedor Petrovich Litke, an admiral and Arctic zone explorer, was born. Seafarer and admiral Ferdinand Petrovich Vrangell was born.


Naval Architecture College was opened in Saint-Petersburg.


Korfu Island was seized by the joint Russian-Turkish fleet under the command of F.F. Ushakov.


Ivan Afanasievich Amosov, a shipbuilder and engineer-general, was born.


Naval commander and admiral Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov was born.


Central Naval Library was opened.


The beginning of the Russian-Turkish war (1806-1812).


Pavel Ivanovich Kruzenshtern, a seafarer and admiral, was born.


Rear-Admiral Vladimir Ivanovich Istomin was born.


The 2nd Baltic Naval depot, as a coastal part of the Baltic Fleet, was formed.


Semen Iliich Zelenoy, a scientist, admiral and author of hydrographs, was born.


Gennadiy Ivanovich Nevelskiy, a traveler, explorer and admiral, was born.


The first Russian steamship “Elizaveta” was built in Saint-Petersburg.


Ivan Fedorovich Aleksandrovskiy, an inventor in the field of submarines construction, was born.


St. George stern flag, which was designed on the basis of the Imperial Russian Navy ensign, was approved. Sloops “Mirniy” and “Vostok”, under the command of M.P. Lazarev and F.F. Bellinshausen, set off from the city of Kronshtadt for the first Antarctic research expedition.


Grigoriy Ivanovich Butakov was born (1820 - 1882) – admiral (1878), military steam fleet strategy and tactics originator.


Andrey Aleksandrovich Popov was born (1821-1898) – shipbuilder and admiral (1891).


The foundation of the first Russian steam battleship “Meteor” was laid.


Aleksandr Fedorovich Mozhayskiy was born (1825-1890) – Rear-Admiral (1886), inventor in the field of aeronautics and aerostatics.


Navarinsk Battle. The joint Russian-English-French squadron routed the Turkish-Egyptian Fleet completely. Hydrographic Service was established.


”Medal for the Russian-Turkish war” was instituted. Legendary battle of the “Mercury” brig (under the command of Lieutenant commander A.I. Kazarskiy) with two Turkish battleships.


Ivan Petrovich Belovenets was born (1830-1878) – a compass adjuster/deviator scientist, Russian pioneer of the magnetic-compass science.


Ilia Pavlovich Alymov was born (1831-1884) – naval architecture scientist.


In accordance with K.A. Schilder’s project, the first all-metal submarine, which was set in motion by sailors-oarsmen, was built in Saint-Petersburg (at that time it was an unparalleled invention). Pavel Pavlovich Kruzenshtern was born (1834-1871) – Lieutenant commander and Arctic explorer.


The first 28-cannon paddle-wheel steam-frigate “Bogatyr” (“Epic Hero”) was launched.


Ivan Petrovich Kolong was born (1839-1901) – Major-General (1893), naval navigation scientist.


Medal on the ribbon of Order of St. Anne “For Diligence” was instituted (it was given to the low-rank seamen who served at the Guards Division for 22 years and in the Navy – for 25 years).


Stepan Karlovich Dzhevetskiy was born (1843-1938) – an engineer, submarines inventor. Piotr Akindinovich Titov was born (1843-1894) – a shipbuilder, inventor of caisson for submarine underbody repair without docking.


In accordance with K.A. Schilder’s project, battle steamship “Otvazhnost” was built; it was a prototype of future torpedo-boat destroyers. Erast Evgenievich Gulyaev was born (1846-1919) – battleships constructor, lieutenant commander (1908).


Shipbuilding scientist Nikolay Egorovich Zhukovskiy was born (1847-1921).


The first screw frigate “Archimedes” was launched. The first issue of a Naval magazine “Naval Collection” was published.


Stepan Osipovich Makarov was born (1849-1904) – naval commander, Vice-Admiral (1896).


The beginning of the Crimean War (1853-1856). Battle of Sinopsk. The first in the history naval steamships battle – steam frigates “Vladimir” and “Pervaz-Bakhry”.


The beginning of the heroic and selfless defence of Sebastopol during the Crimean war.


Medal “For Defence of Sebastopol” was instituted.


Medal “In the memory of the War of 1853-1856” was instituted. Juliy Mikhailovich Shokalskiy was born (1856-1940) – oceanography scientist, cartographer.


Andrey Ippolitovich Vilkitskiy was born (1858-1913) – Arctic explorer, hydrographer-geodesist, lieutenant-general.


Aleksey Nikolaevich Krylov was born (1863-1945) – shipbuilder scientist, mechanic and mathematician. The historical friendly visit of the Russian Fleet squadron to the USA.


The first in the world construction of an ice-breaker “Pilot” began (M.O. Britnev’s project).


The first self-propelled torpedo-mine was constructed by I.F. Aleksandrovskiy.


In accordance with the project, proposed by I.F. Aleksandrovskiy, compressed-air engine submarine was built.


À.À. Popov developed a detailed project of a sea-going battleship construction.


Mikhail Petrovich Naletov, inventor of the first-ever underwater minelayer, was born (1869-1938)


The first turret battleship “Peter the Great” was launched. Ivan Grigorievich Bubnov, the founder of the ship structural mechanics, was born (1872-1919).


The first ocean-going armored cruiser “General-Admiral” was launched.


The first Russian minelayer “Galvaner” was built. Aleksandr Pavlovich Shershov was born (1874-1959) – engineer-shipbuilder and Vice-Admiral.


Evgeniy Victorovich Tarle was born (1875-1965) – a historian who made an important contribution to the Russian Naval history study.


The beginning of the Russian-Turkish war (1877-1878). Torpedo-mine weaponry was used for the first time. The first sea-going torpedo-boat “Vzryv” (“Explosion”) was launched in Saint-Petersburg.


Medal “In Memory of the Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878” was instituted. “Medal for Courage” for the low-rank seamen was instituted (since 1913 it has been called “St. George Medal”). The first torpedo weaponry application by boats.


Nikolay Nikolaevich Matusevich was born (1879-1950) – Vice-Admiral (1943), hydrographer – geodesist.


S.K. Dzhevetskiy introduced, for the first time in the world history, a submarine with an accumulator-generated electrical engine.


Vladimir Polievktovich Kostenko was born (1881-1956) – a shipbuilder and Soviet Union shipbuilding organizer.


Shipbuilding scientist Valentin Lvovich Pozdyunin was born (1883-1948). Julian Aleksandrovich Shimanskiy, a shipbuilder and professor (1938), was born (1883-1962).


The world’s first submarine with an accumulator-generated electrical engine was launched (author of the project - S.K. Dzhevetskiy).


Boris Andreevich Vilkitskiy, a scientist and hydrographer-geodesist, was born (1885 - 1961). Nikolay Nikolaevich Zubov was born (1885-1960) – ocean scientist and Rear-Admiral-Engineer (1945). Valery Evgenievich Lyakhnitskiy was born (1885-1960) – a scientist in the fields of hydraulic engineering and port facilities and installations planning.


The first mine cruiser “Lieutenant Iliin” was built in Saint-Petersburg. Amur Military Flotilla formation.


Mikhail Iosifovich Yanovskiy was born (1888-1949) – a shipbuilder and specialist in the field of marine turbine construction.


Boris Mikhailovich Malinin was born (1889-1949) – a shipbuilding scientist, author of the submarines projects of D-type, L-type and Shch-type.


Shipbuilding scientist Lev Markovich Nogid was born (1892-1972).


Ivan Stepanovich Isakov, Admiral of the Soviet Union Fleet (1955), was born (1894-1967).


Vasiliy Grigorievich Vlasov was born (1896-1959) – an outstanding scientist, prominent naval architecture expert.


S.K. Dzhevetskiy invented a tubeless submarine torpedo-launching gear.


The first military submarine “Dolphin” was developed (author of the project – I.G. Bubnov). Nikolay Evgraphovich Kochin was born (1901-1944) – a remarkable scientist and ship heaving theory expert.


Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov, Admiral of the Soviet Union Fleet (1955), was born (1902-1974).


The world’s first diesel-motor ship was launched.


The beginning of the Russian-Japanese war (1904-1905). Legendary battle of the cruiser “Varyag” and gunboat “Koreets” with the Japanese squadron. Tragic death of Vice-Admiral O.O. Makarov in the explosion of the battleship “Petropavlovsk”. The first military submarine “Dolphin” was launched at the Baltic Shipbuilding Plant in Saint-Petersburg. Battleship “Potemkin” was put in operation. Medal on the ribbon of St. Andrew Order “In the Memory of the Chemul’po Battle accepted by “Varyag” and “Koreets” was established.


Tragic period in the history of the Russian Fleet – terrible defeat of the Fleet in the Tsusima Battle, loss of twelve battleships.


The first Russian training underwater voyage group was formed in Libave (Liepae).


Following the innovative project, proposed by S.K. Dzhevetskiy, a submarine “Pochtovy” with a single gasoline engine used for both underwater and surface navigation was constructed. Squadron battleships were renamed in battleships. Medal on the ribbon of St. Alexander and St. George Order “In the Memory of the Russian-Japanese War” was instituted.


Submarine “Minoga”, constructed by I.G. Bubnov, was built. For the first time in the shipbuilding history, reversible diesel engines were used.


Diesel-powered armored cruiser project was elaborated by N.N. Kuteynikov. The world’s first anti-mine ship “Minrep” was put into service.


Search for submarine was done for the first time with the help of an airplane (pilot – V.V. Dybovskiy). Naval pilots group was formed in Sebastopol. Battleships of “Sebastopol” type were put into service.


Naval aviation formation at the Baltic Sea Fleet. The world’s first underwater minelayer “Krab”, constructed in accordance with M.P. Naletov’s project, was launched.


Destroyer “Novik” was put into service. It was the first Russian turbine warship that held a world speed record for warships (37.7 knots).


The construction of the first home-made battleship-dreadnoughts. The naval aviation was put in operation in the extreme climatic conditions of the Far North region (by Lieutenant Y. Nagurskiy on airplane while searching for the lost expedition led by G. Sedov). Near the city of Sebastopol the Russian Naval aircraft, for the first time in the world’s history, bombarded an enemy’s warship (German battleship “Geben”).


Underwater minelayer “Krab” was launched. Submarines of “Bars” type were put in operation at the Baltic Sea Fleet. Battle of Gotland – repulse of the German Fleet attempt to enter the Gulf of Riga.


Arctic Ocean Flotilla formation.


October Revolt in Petrograd. Ensign of the Imperial Russian Navy was replaced with an International one (red cloth with no emblems and writings).


Decree on Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Fleet Formation was signed. Arctic Voyage from Revel to Kronshtadt was undertaken by the Baltic Sea Fleet. Most part of the Black Sea Fleet was flooded down. Formation of the Azov Sea, Chudskoe Lake, Volga River and Onega Lake Flotillas as well as the Astrakhan region Navy.


Upheaval at the forts of “Krasnaya Gorka” and “Seraya Loshad”. English torpedo-boat destroyer “Victoria” was ruined by the Russian submarine “Pantera”. Formation of the Don River and Dnestr River military flotillas.


The White Sea Military flotilla formation.


Kronshtadt Upheaval.


Establishment of the Military and Naval People’s Commissariat.


A group of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Fleet ships set off for the first over-sea campaign.


The first Statute of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Fleet Naval Service came into force.


The foundation of the first series of “Decabrist”-type submarines was laid (chief constructor – B.M. Malinin). The first Soviet-made torpedo boat “Pervenets” ANT-3 was tested (chief constructor – A.N. Tupolev). The foundation of series of “Uragan”-type guard-ships was laid.


Serial torpedo boat ANT-4 was launched. The Baltic Sea Fleet was awarded with Order of the Red Banner for the services in battle.


The first military Statute of the Red Army Naval forces (BU-30). Submarines of “Decabrist” type came to take the place of “Bars”.


The Pacific Ocean Fleet formation. Naval Statute (KU-32) was implemented.


The Northern Sea Fleet formation. Submarines “Shchuka” and “Leninets” (following the project of B.M. Malinin) were launched.


Submarine “Malyutka” (following the project of B.M. Malinin) was launched.


The Naval Ensign of the USSR was established. The world’s first air-cushion ship, which was constructed in accordance with the project of V.I. Levkov, was put to the test. Military rank system was introduced.


Naval aviation, finally, became one of the key parts of the Russian Fleet (the Air Forces of the Navy). Provisional military statute and training regulations (BUMS-37) were introduced.


Chief Navy Council was established.


Ladoga Naval flotilla formation. Submarine “K-1”, which had been made according to the project of M.A. Rudnitskiy, was put into operation. Marines were organized into an integral part of the Navy. Day of the Navy was chosen and officially established.


The beginning of the Great Patriotic War. Airplanes of the Air Forces bombarded Berlin. Heroic defence of Liepae. Heroic defence of Hanko. The beginning of the military defensive operation in the polar region. The first artillery battle of the surface ships while defending the Gulf of Riga. Seamen actively participated in the Battle of Leningrad. Defence of Tallinn, which was the main naval base of the Red Baltic Sea Fleet. Defence of Odessa. The Russian ships managed to break the enemy’s opposition and go from Tallinn to Kronshtadt. The birth of Soviet Guards. Defence of Sebastopol – the main naval base of the Black Sea Fleet. Kerch-Feodossiya landing operation.


Defence of Novorossiysk. Repulse of an attack of a heavy cruiser “Admiral Scheer” on Port Dikson. Defence of Tuapse.


Cruiser “Kirov”, the first among the Red Baltic Sea Fleet surface ships, was granted the Order of the Red Banner. Nakhimov Naval Schools organization. Novorossiysk landing operation. Kerch-Eltigen landing operation.


Odessa defence operation, Nikolaevskiy landing party was landed. Vyborg offensive action was launched. Narva offensive action was launched. Baltic Sea area strategic offensive operation was launched. Moonzund landing operation. Petsam-Kirkeness operation.


Submarine “S-13”, under the command of A.I. Marinesco, managed to ruin the battleship “Wilhelm Gustav” and large-scale transport “General von Schteuben”. Capitulation of Germany. Seisin landing operation. Kurilly landing operation – the last operation during the World War II.


Lightweight cruisers of “Sverdlov” type were put into service. Naval Ministry of the USSR was formed.


The beginning of the nuclear-powered missile-carrying and multi-purpose submarines construction as well as surface ships of the 2nd post-war generation.


The first ballistic rocket was launched from a soviet submarine.


The world’s first nuclear-powered ice-breaker “Lenin” was put into service.


Nuclear-powered submarine “Leninskiy Komsomol” reached the North Pole.


Order of the Red Banner was given to the Red Baltic Sea Fleet, Black Sea Fleet, North Sea Fleet and Pacific Ocean Fleet. Under-ice navigation; a submarine reached the North Pole. 1966.

The world’s first group circumnavigation was undertaken by several Soviet submarines under the command of Rear-Admiral A.I. Sorokin.


Maneuvers of “Ocean”-class were conducted by the Soviet Union Navy in the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic Oceans as well as neighboring seas.


Military sweeping of the Suez Canal by the Soviet Navy ships.


The first Soviet aircraft-carrying cruiser “Kirov” was put into service.


The first group under-ice navigation was undertaken by several Soviet submarines in the Arctic Ocean.


Nuclear-powered missile-carrying cruiser “Kirov” was put into service. Trainings and tactical exercises “West-81” were conducted in the Baltic Sea.


Famous oceanographic ships “Admiral Vladimirskiy” and “Faddey Bellinshausen” set off for an Antarctic expedition following the route of the first Russian Antarctic expedition which had been undertaken by F.F. Bellinshausen and M.P. Lazarev. A group of the North Sea Fleet submarines conducted a 47-day under-ice campaign.


Missile-carrying cruisers of “Slava” type were put into operation.


Heavy-weight aircraft-carrying cruiser “Admiral Kuznetsov” was put into operation.


Coastal rocket-artillery troops and marines were reorganized into Coastal Defense Troops of the Navy.


Imperial Russian Navy Ensign was approved.


Russian warships paid official visits to Canada and the USA. Russian warships made calls into 11 foreign ports.


Web-server of the Russian Navy was created.


The laid down ceremony of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine Alexandr Nevsky (March 19).

On July 7 a Project 667BDRM Delfin-class ballistic missile submarine (NATO reporting name Delta-IV) commanded by captain 1st Rank Alexandr Moiseev performed satellite Tubsat-H launching by the rocket RCM-54C.


In October the crew of a Project 667BDRM Delfin class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine Ekaterinburg commanded by captain 1st Rank Sergey Rachuk sailed to the North Pole. During the mission first time for last 12 years Russian submarine successfully fired ballistic missile from the the North Pole.


The group of Northern Fleet warships headed by aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov on December 5 started the mission in the North-east Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

The group also comprised of anti-submarine warfare ships Admiral Levchenko, Admiral Chabanenko, supply vessels Sergey Osipov and Nikolay Cheker, also two supply vessels Lena and Kola of Baltic Fleet. Guided missile cruiser Moskva and tanker Bubnov of the Black Sea Fleet joined the group in the Mediterranean Sea. 4 warships, 7 auxiliary ships, 47 aircrafts and 10 helicopters participated in the mission in total. The tactical group conducted three exercises (with foreign navies as well) with dry and practical shooting. Russian warships called to 11 ports in six countries. Before February 3, 2008, when the ships were back to Russian naval bases, they had sailed about 12 nautical miles.

On November 20, 2008 the commander of the mission vice-admiral Nikolay Maksimov was appointed to the post of the Northern Fleet Commander.


On August 10 small-size missile ship commanded by the captain 3'rd rank I. Dubnik as a part of the Black Sea Fleet group, led by the cruiser Moskva, sank one of four Georgian rocket boats, violated the declared safety zone borders of Abkhazia coast.

Ships of the Russian Black Sea Fleet left their base in Sevastopol, Ukraine, on the evening of 8 August for an unknown destination. On 10 August RIA-Novosti – quoting a source at the Russian Navy Main Staff – reported that a group of Russian warships had arrived at the maritime border with Georgia in the eastern part of the Black Sea.

"In the morning of Sunday 10 August, the Black Sea Fleet flagship, the missile cruiser Moskva, destroyer Smetlivyy and auxiliary vessels from the Black Sea Fleet base in Sevastopol reached the intended area", the source was quoted as saying. According to the source, the warships joined three large Russian landing-ships, which had deployed to the area earlier from Sevastopol and from Novorossiysk.

"The objective of the Black Sea Fleet's warships in the area is to be prepared to provide assistance to refugees", the source said. He denied earlier media reports that the warships were enforcing a blockade of Georgia's coast. "A naval blockade would indicate war with Georgia. We are not at war with Georgia."

The flagship of the Black Sea Fleet, the missile cruiser Moskva, and the escort ship Smetlivyy entered the port of Novorossiysk on Sunday 10 August and dropped anchor, according to sources in the Novorossiysk administration. On the evening of 10 August a naval skirmish between the Russian task-force and several Georgian naval vessels took place.

Two Georgian missile-boats and two auxiliary craft breached the Russian declared "security zone" around the Russian ships. Reportedly the Russian Nanuchka III class corvette Mirazh (Mirage) destroyed the Georgian Coast Guard patrol-cutter Giorgi Toreli with two Malakhit (SS-N-9) anti-ship missiles, killing 30 sailors. (The Georgian side has never acknowledged that this battle or the loss of a Georgian ship ever took place.)

This action constituted the Russian Navy's first real sea battle since 1945. The Russians claimed that Georgian ships had violated the security zone of their deployed ships and therefore the action represented self-defense in accordance with international law. Following the action, the remaining Georgian ships withdrew to a nearby harbour.

On September 22, 2008, ASW ships Petr Velikiy and Admiral Chabanenko left their homeport of Severomorsk.

On October 22, 2008 Petr Velikiy made a port visit to Aksaz Karagac, Turkey and on November 6–9, 2008 the nuclear cruiser and Admiral Chabanenko made a port visit to Toulon, France, before departing the Mediterranean on November 10, 2008 passing through the Strait of Gibraltar.

The Petr Velikiy arrived in La Guaira, Venezuela on November 25, 2008 coincident with a visit by Russian President Medvedev and a combined exercise VENRUS-200 with the Venezuelan Navy took place on December 1–2, 2008.

After finishing the exercises, Admiral Chabanenko made a short visit to Panama December 5–10, 2008 then to Bluefields, Nicaragua December 13 to 15 and Havana, Cuba from December 19 to 23.

In late September 2008, the Neustrashimy left the Baltic Fleet and was sent to the Gulf of Aden waters off the Somali coast to fight piracy in the region. Russian navy spokesman Capt. Igor Dygalo told the Associated Press that the missile frigate Neustrashimy had left the Baltic Sea port of Baltiisk a day before the hijacking to cooperate with other unspecified countries in anti-piracy efforts.

As of October 27, it was operating independently in the vicinity of a group of NATO warships near the Somali coast. On November 11, it helped capture suspected pirates along with the Royal Marines of HMS Cumberland; the suspected pirates had been attempting to board the MV Powerful. On November 16, 2008, it prevented pirates from capturing Saudi Arabian ship MV Rabih.

From 5 December 2008 through 2 March 2009 Kuznetsov made its third Mediterranean deployment.

On 5 December 2008 the aircraft carrier and several other vessels left Severomorsk heading for the Atlantic on a tour which was announced would be lasting several months and which would include combat training including joint drills with Russia's Black Sea Fleet and visits to several ports in the Mediterranean. On this tour while the Admiral Kuznetsov anchored off Turkey on 7 January 2009 a small fire broke out on the ship. One crew member was killed by carbon monoxide poisoning. The fire was caused by a short-circuit.

As of February 2008, The Russian Navy had 44 nuclear submarines with 24 operational; 19 diesel-electric submarines - 16 operational; and 56 first and second rank surface combatants - 37 operational.

Despite this improvement, the November 2008 accident on board the Akula-class attack boat Nerpa during sea trials before lease to India represents a concern for the future.

The K-152 Nerpa accident was an incident that occurred aboard the Russian submarine K-152 Nerpa on 8 November 2008, which resulted in the deaths of 20 people and injuries to 41 more. The deaths and injuries were caused by an unsanctioned release of fire suppressant gas inside the submarine during a submerged test run during the vessel's sea trials in the Sea of Japan. The gas caused victims to die of asphyxiation or suffer frostbite in their lungs. The incident was the worst Russian submarine disaster since the Kursk sank in 2000. Three of the dead were military personnel and the rest were civilians from the Vostok, Zvezda, Era and Amur shipbuilding yards who were members of the acceptance team.

Two principal explanations of the disaster have been advanced by naval experts and the media - that there was a failure of the equipment, or that the accident was caused by human error.

The LOKh fire suppression system aboard the Nerpa was reportedly of a new type that had not previously been used aboard any Russian submarine. Earlier versions of the LOKh system only operate under manual control from the duty shift console. The new system installed on the Nerpa could also operate in automatic mode, responding to smoke and rises in compartment temperature and activating individually in each compartment. According to the testimony of an engineer from the Zvezda shipyard, this had malfunctioned before while the submarine was being readied for its sea trials. Some commentators speculated that the system could have been accidentally activated by cigarette smoke.


On January 11, 2009, the chief of the Russian General Staff announced that Petr Velikiy and six other Russian warships would participate in a joint naval exercise with the Indian Navy later the same month.

On the way to India, the Kirov-class cruiser made a three-day visit to Cape Town, South Africa.

On January 31, Petr Velikiy left the port of Mormugao in the Indian state of Goa. After a two-day visit that included a naval exercise with the Indian guided-missile destroyer INS Delhi the cruiser left for African waters where the vessel joined other warships from the Russian navy and conduct the INDRA-2009 exercise.

On February 12, 2009, the ship captured 10 pirates in three boats off the coast of Somalia.

On March 10, 2009 Petr Velikiy returned to its homeport of Severomorsk, ending a six-month deployment.

In 2009, Admiral Popov (Ret.), former commander of the Russian Northern Fleet, said that the Russian Navy will greatly decline in combat capabilities by 2015 if the current rate of new ship construction remains unchanged, due to the retirement of ocean going ships.

On 16 February 2009, the Admiral Kuznetsov, along with other Russian naval vessels was involved in a large oil spill while she refuelled off the south coast of Ireland.

On 2 March 2009 the Admiral Kuznetsov returned to her main base in Severomorsk after a three-month voyage in the Northern Atlantic and the Mediterranean waters.

The Defense Minister of Russia, Anatoliy Serdyukov, announced on August 17 that the ship Arctic Sea had been found and seized off the Cape Verde Islands. All 15 crew members were said to be alive and well; they were transferred to the Ladnyy, a Krivak-class frigate, for questioning. At that time no additional details were given. Dmitry Rogozin, Russia's ambassador to NATO mentioned to the press on August 17 that false information was deliberately supplied to the media in order to keep Russian plans secret. The MV Arctic Sea is a merchant vessel cargo ship, formerly registered in Malta that was reported as missing between late July and mid August 2009 en route from Finland to Algeria. On July 24, the Arctic Sea, manned by a Russian crew and carrying a cargo of what was declared to consist solely of timber, was allegedly boarded by hijackers off the coast of Sweden. The incident was not immediately reported, and contact with the ship was apparently lost on, or after, July 30. The Arctic Sea did not arrive at its scheduled port in Algeria, and on August 14 the ship was located near Cape Verde instead. On August 17 it was seized by the Russian Navy.


On April 28, 2010, The Ukrainian parliament ratified an agreement to extend Russia's lease of Crimean base facilities to 2042 with an option for five more years, through 2047.

On 16 February 2009, the Admiral Kuznetsov, along with other Russian naval vessels was involved in a large oil spill while she refuelled off the south coast of Ireland.

On 2 March 2009 the Admiral Kuznetsov returned to her main base in Severomorsk after a three-month voyage in the Northern Atlantic and the Mediterranean waters.

In July 2009 the fire completely destroyed the largest military base of the Russian Navy in Kolomna. The fire occurred on Thursday 29 July. It took place at about 04:00 pm on the storage base of aviation and technical equipment belonging to the Russian Navy, which is located near the town of Kolomna, Moscow Region. HQ, a financial unit, a club, two buildings of the car park, 13 storage facilities with different aircraft, 17 open storage areas for equipment with cars on them, were burnt down.

The first Lada class submarine was commissioned in 2010.


On Oct 14, 2011 Russian naval ensign was hoisted on corvette Soobrazitelny moored at the quay of JSC Severnaya Verf shipyard. Project 20380 first serial corvette has been commissioned into Russian Navy.

Navigation incident with nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) Svyatoi Georgy Pobedonosets happened on 21 September in Avachinskaya Bay. In accordance with Pacific Fleet Combat Training Plan, nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) Svyatoi Georgy Pobedonosets was buoyed at surface position in the Mokhovaya Bay; the submarine was motionless, navigation lights were on. All kinds of defenses were organized, as well as permanent visual and radar monitoring.

According to duty officer of harbor defense division, at 2 am shipmaster of fishing seiner Donets requested clearance for exit from Avachinskaya Bay in accordance with previously submitted application.

At 02.09 am the submarine's watchmen detected a target heading against the background of coastal lights. It was identified as fishing seiner approaching to the sub. All attempts to get on contact with the seiner on 12th frequency (VHF channel) were ineffective. The submarine command made operative decision, and a red flare was launched towards the seiner to warn about dangerous approach. However, Donets continued moving ahead. To prevent collision, the watchman launched other three red flares. The fishing ship did not react on them either.

On 29 December 2011 around 1220 UTC, submarine K-84 Ekaterinburg caught fire while in drydock in Murmansk, and after several hours of firefighting efforts, she was partially sunk in an effort to control the fire.

Initial statements from Russian authorities indicate there were no injuries or radiation leakage, and that the vessel was not carrying any weapons as she was drydocked for repairs. The fire apparently began when sparks from welding being done on the boat's hull ignited wooden scaffolding around the ship, then spread to the flammable rubber coating covering the hull. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev ordered the repair of the submarine and a thorough investigation of the incident on 30 December 2011. The boat's hydro acoustic system was disabled in the fire. Some sources speculate that the submarines pressure hull suffered possible structural damage due to the intense heat, the temperature inside the torpedo room allegedly rose to 60-70°C.

A commission will study the damage to the submarine and determine whether it is economical to repair it. A Zvezdochka shipyard spokesperson said that the repairs will take more than a year.

On February 14, 2012, Vlast reported that the submarine had been carrying 16 R-29RM Shtil (NATO designation SS-N-23 Skiff) SLBMs, armed with four nuclear warheads in each missile, at the time of the fire, though officials had said at the time of the fire that no nuclear weapons were on board, as they had been unloaded before the fire broke out. According to Vlast, the presence of nuclear weapons on the burning vessel would have meant that "Russia, for a day, was on the brink of the biggest catastrophe since the time of Chernobyl."

Viktor Litovkin, editor-in-chief of Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, seriously doubted that a nuclear submarine could undergo maintenance with missiles and torpedoes on board because an off-duty submarine cannot have any weapons on board due to the Russian-American Prague agreement on nuclear arms. Litovkin explains that "when such a submarine is in dock, all missile pits are opened so that the Americans could check from surveillance satellites that there are no missiles in them... Moscow and Washington notify each other when nuclear missile carriers are going off duty for maintenance and Russia does the same surveillance of American subs."

On 29 November 2011, Army General Nikolay Makarov, Chief of the Russian General Staff, said that sending ships of the Russian Navy to the Mediterranean Sea is linked to exercises and not to the situation in Syria. "In the event of necessity, namely to carry out repairs, to take water and food on board and to allow rest for the crews, Russian ships may visit Tartus but in this case this has not been included in the plan of the trip," the Interfax source said.

He also noted that the size of Admiral Kuznetsov does not allow it to moor in Tartus because the port does not have suitable infrastructure, i.e. large enough mooring.

On 6 December 2011, the Admiral Kuznetsov and escorting ships departed its Northern Fleet homebase for a several month Mediterranean deployment. During the deployment Kuznetsov will also exercise with ships from the Russian Baltic and Black Sea Fleets.

On 12 December 2011 the Admiral Kuznetsov with its carrier group, has been spotted northeast of the Orkneys off the coast of northern Scotland from where it has been shadowed by HMS York for a week. This was the first time the carrier had deployed near the UK; due to severe weather, the group took shelter in international waters in the Moray Firth, some 30 miles from the UK coast. The Kuznetsov then sailed around the top of Scotland and into the Atlantic past western Ireland, where it conducted flying operations with her Sukhoi Su-33 Flanker jets and Kamov Ka-27 helicopters in international airspace.


On 8 January 2012, the Admiral Kuznetsov anchored near shore outside of Tartus while other ships in its escort entered the port to use the leased Russian naval support facility. After replenishing supplies, all of the ships will continue their Mediterranean deployment on 9 January.

On 17 February 2012, the Admiral Kuznetsov returned to its homebase of Severomorsk.

On 6 May 2012, President Dmitry Medvedev on his last day in office prior to the inauguration of Vladimir Putin appointed Viktor Chirkov to replace Vladimir Vysotskiy as the Russian Navy's Commander-in-Chief. In an interview with news agency RIA Novosti, Chirkov said, "The most important thing for Russia is to build a fleet with the support of the president and like-minded persons."

The ensign-hoisting ceremony on Project 21630 corvette Volgodonsk took place in St. Petersburg on June 29 at JSC Almaz Marine Yard.

On July 27, 2012 the Zvezdochka shipyard turned the K-407 Novomoskovsk submarine of the Project 667BDRM class over to the navy. The submarine underwent what's described as a "medium overhaul" and some modernization.

The incident occurred on board training ship Perekop on July 31, 2012 during gun firing drill in the Baltic Sea. Five sailors happened on the top deck were injured by fragments of 30-mm shell which hit a portside boat davit. The ship's medical officer promptly rendered first medical aid to all sufferers. A motorboat called from Kronshtadt brought the injured personnel to a hospital. Head wound became lethal to a 20-year old Nikita Mitrofanov, and the sailor died in the ambulance car.

Military procuracy initiated a criminal case in accordance with Article 349/2, Russian Criminal Code (violation of arms handling rules led to grievous consequences).

Main person suspected in the incident is the ship's commanding officer Capt 2 Rank Sergei Bor who failed to stand the stress and fell to a hospital in pre-infarction state right after the tragedy.

The tragedy happened to training ship Perekop on July 31 can not be explained by the desire to take spectacular pictures for a sailor's discharge album, an eyewitness of the accident told Central Navy Portal. According to him, during the gun firing drill one of the suffered sailors was keeping watch on the afterdeck, and the others were nearby, just because no one ordered them to get off the deck. None of the sufferers was taking pictures then.

5 crewmembers of training ship Perekop suffered by explosion of a 30-mm shell during the gun firing drill held on July 31 in the Gulf of Finland. As was reported then by RIA Novosti referring to a source in Leningrad Naval Base, the young men "decided to take pictures for discharge album and got on the top deck, having violated the shipboard chart. If they had obeyed the regulations, the tragedy wouldn't happen".

One of them, a 20-year old sailor Nikita Mitrofanov who had been drafted in the spring and served in the engineering department soon died fr om the head wound despite appropriate first medical aid. He died in Kronshtadt hospital wh ere he was promptly brought by a motorboat along with other sufferers.

The rest wounded sailors were then transferred to the Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg; they are still there passing appropriate medical treatment. According to the academy's inquiry office, health status of the sailors fr om Perekop is satisfactory.

However, there were some other exercises onboard Perekop prior to the firing drills that day, the eyewitness told Central Navy Portal. In particular, inflatable corner reflectors were prepared on the afterdeck; before that, the smokescreen was laid and smoke pots were ignited. After overboard discharge of a floating dummy mine, the ship turned and apparently got too close to it.

That made gunners open fire at almost lim it depression angle. One of the last shells in the burst hit portside boat davit and exploded. Five sailors standing on the top deck next to the gun mount were wounded by fragments. According to the source of Central Navy Portal, more crewmembers could suffer then, since there were some other men on the deck. Some of them tried to capture the firing drill on his cellphone camera, recalled the eyewitness. But none of them was making any "group shots".

Baltic Fleet corvette Soobrazitelny was immobilized on Sept 2 in the Baltic Sea due to a fire occurred in the engine-room.

A short circuit happened on on Sept 2 in the ship’s cable network led to fumigation. Although the crew promptly eliminated the problem, the ship discontinued participation in the exercise.

The fire in chimney had occurred when the corvette was anchored off the harbor of Danish port and naval base Frederikshavn.

Corvette Soobrazitelny was supposed to attend the DANEX-NOCO-2012 large-scale multinational exercise which main participants are countries of the Baltic Sea region and some other states like the US, Norway, and Canada. Prior to that, the Russian ship left the base to take part in the maneuvers along with NATO warships.

On 12 December 2011 the Admiral Kuznetsov with its carrier group, has been spotted northeast of the Orkneys off the coast of northern Scotland from where it has been shadowed by HMS York for a week. This was the first time the carrier had deployed near the UK; due to severe weather, the group took shelter in international waters in the Moray Firth, some 30 miles from the UK coast. The Kuznetsov then sailed around the top of Scotland and into the Atlantic past western Ireland.

On 8 January 2012, the Admiral Kuznetsov anchored near shore outside of Tartus while other ships in its escort entered the port to use the leased Russian naval support facility. After replenishing supplies, all of the ships will continue their Mediterranean deployment on 9 January.

On 17 February 2012, the Admiral Kuznetsov returned to its homebase of Severomorsk.


K-535 Yuriy Dolgorukiy, the first Borei-class ballistic missile submarine of the Project 955, was commisened into Russian Navy on January 10.

Large ASW ship Severomorsk of the Northern Fleet has started civil maritime traffic securing in the Gulf of Aden and near Horn of Africa as reported on February, 4.

Warships group of the Pacific Fleet, consisting of large large anti-submarine ship Marshal Shaposhnikov, intermediate sea tanker Irkut and rescue tug Alatau, completed it's convoy in the Gulf of Aden in March and participated in Langkawi International Maritime & Aerospace Exhibition (LIMA-2013).

Largest for last ten years inter-fleet training exercises of Russian Navy with the participation of Baltic, Northern, Black Sea and Pacific Fleets started on January, 19 in the Black and the Mediterranean Seas water areas and ended in January 31. The inter-fleet group comprises the warships from the North, Baltic, Black Sea and Pacific Fleets: a guided missile cruiser Moskva, a large ASW ship Severomorsk, guard ships Smetlivy and Yaroslav Mudry, large landing ships Saratov, Azov, Kaliningrad, Alexandr Shabalin and service ships, long-range aviation and the fourth Air Force/Air Defense command.

The main goal of the exercises is to practice the formation of a combined group of forces outside of the Russian Federation, plan its use and perform joint operations within a Navy group under the common plan.

A boarding team comprising assault forces of the Russian Federation large ASW ship Severomorsk and Italian marines from the NATO flagship San Marco, in charge of Operation Ocean Shield, trained together in counter-piracy activities as part of a bilateral exercise between Russia and NATO in the Gulf of Aden on 26 February.

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