Combat Capability [42%], Role and Missions, Structure of the Navy, in-service ships, surface ships, submarines, chronology.
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The Navy waits for recruits
Over three thousand young men enlisted in the Navy this fall, 2008. What units they see the duty in?It should be mentioned first that the Navy is a powerful factor in national defense capability. All of our four fleets wait for the recruits, including flagships of these fleets. Namely at the Northern Fleet – heavy aircraft carrying cruiser Admiral Kuznetsov and heavy missile cruiser Petr Velikiy, at Baltic Fleet - destroyers Bespokoiniy and Nastoichviy, training ships Smolniy and Perekop, at Black Sea Fleet - missile cruiser of the Guards Moskva, at Pacific Fleet – cruiser Varyag.
The Navy is divided into strategic nuclear forces and general purpose forces. Strategic nuclear forces feature powerful nuclear missile potential, high mobility and ability to operate for a long time in various areas of the World Ocean. The Navy falls into the following arms: submarine, surface, naval aviation, marines, and coastal defense infantry. It also includes the ships and crafts, special purpose units, and combat service support units.
Submarine force is the spearhead of the Navy able to hold in check the vast of the World Ocean, quickly and secretly deploy and deliver powerful strikes from the depths of the ocean against seaborne and land-based targets. Depending on the primary weapon the submarines fall into missile and attack and with regard to propulsion plant they divided to nuclear and diesel-electric.
The core of the Navy is nuclear submarines armed with nuclear ballistic and guided missiles. Such submarines are stationed in the Arctic and Pacific oceans and commissioned for the respective fleets. These crafts are permanently on station in the various parts of the World Ocean ready for immediate employment of their strategic weapon. Nuclear powered submarines armed with ship-to-ship guided missile aimed basically on combat the enemy surface ships. Nuclear powered submarines armed solely with torpedoes are present in all four Russian fleets and designated for breaking enemy lines of underwater and surface communications and penetration of anti-submarine defense systems, as well as escorting of missile submarines and surface ships. Usage of diesel submarines both missile and torpedo is generally related to dispatching of missions within limited sea theatres.
Equipping of submarines with nuclear propulsion, nuclear-missile weapon, powerful hydroacoustic sets and high-accuracy navigational aids together with overall control process automation and optimal living environment of the crew significantly increased their tactical capabilities and the ways of operational use. The surface forces in the modern time remain the core of the Navy. Construction of ships aircrafts and helicopter carriers as well as the conversion of other ship classes for nuclear propulsion widened their operational capabilities. Provision of helicopters and aircrafts to the ships improves the capabilities on detection and engaging of enemy submarines. The helicopters provide for reliable retransmission and communication, target marking, cargos swapping at sea, landing of troops and rescue missions.
Surface ships are the bulk strength for ensuring of submarines deployment in operations area and their return home as well as transportation and coverage of landing forces. They hold the key role in mine laying, mine sweeping and protection of lines of communication. Conventional task for the surface ships is the delivery of hits against targets at enemy territory and coverage of own coasts from the adversary’s naval forces. Accordingly the series of critical combat tasks is allotted at surface ships forces. These tasks are dispatched in groups, squadrons, detachments both independently and in cooperation with other arms of the Navy (submarines, aviation, marines).
Naval aviation is a branch of the Navy. It consists of the strategic and tactical air arms, carrier-based and land based air arms. Strategic and tactical air arms are designated for fighting squadrons of ships in the oceans, submarines and transports, as well as delivery of bomb and missile strikes against enemy coastal facilities. Carrier-based air is main armament of the naval carrier forces. Their main tasks observed are elimination of enemy aircrafts in the air, antiaircraft guided missile stations and other air defense facilities, and execution of tactical reconnaissance, etc. When dispatching missions carrier-based aviation coordinates closely with tactical air arm.
Naval helicopters are efficient means of target marking for missile weapon when hunting submarines and repulsing of attacks of low-flying aircrafts and anti-ship missiles. Armed with air-to-surface missiles and other weapons they are considered as powerful means for landing force support and hitting of enemy gun and missile boats.
Marines is a branch of the Navy, designated to conduct warfare within landing forces (independently or in cooperation with land forces), and defense of the coast (naval bases, ports, etc). The Marines units that enlist recruits are also represented in all four Russian fleets.
During combat operations the Marines use all types of weapons typical for motorized rifle forces but using own tactics for landing. Coastal defense units as a separate branch of the Navy is meant for protection of naval bases, harbors, strategically important parts of the coast, islands and straits, passages against attacks of enemy ships and landing forces. The backbone of their armament are coast-based missile systems and artillery, air defense systems, mine and torpedo weapon as well as coastal defense water (defense of waterway area) crafts of special built. In order to ensure effective coast defense seacoast fortification system is organized.
Administrative troops are meant for logistics support of the Navy. In order to maintain combat readiness such troops observe satisfaction of material, transportation, household and other wants of the Navy units.